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Animals which meat is allowed to be eaten

Muhammad-Amin Magomedrasulov



The knowledge of what is allowed and not allowed to be eaten is included in the category of paramount knowledge that every Muslim must possess, since the use of haram (unauthorized) is promised a harsh punishment. The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “The flesh that was raised on the consumption of haram is worth only the fire of hell” (“Jamiul Ahadis”, No. 9976).

أيما لحم نبت من حرام فالنار أولى به

That is why we considered it very important to inform Muslims about those animals whose meat is allowed to be eaten. Since the inhabitants of Russia and the CIS countries adhere mainly to the Hanafi and Shafi'i madhhabs, we decided to clarify this topic according to these two madhhabs.

Animals whose meat is permitted and animals whose meat is forbidden to eat according to the Hanafi madhhab

Islam is a religion of mercy and compassion. Orders and prohibitions of Islam carry only good things to man. But the mind of man, due to the fact that he is extremely limited, cannot always understand the reason for each prescription of religion. The mind may not be able to realize why the decision is such, but the Most High, the All-Merciful, and the All-Knowing Allah, knows best of all what is useful and what is bad for us because He created us.

Allah Almighty bestowed upon humanity as the mercy of His beloved Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) as light and source of light. The Islamic law (Shari'ah), with which the Messenger of Allah came (peace and blessings be upon him), established the difference between living and dead animals. Dead was declared forbidden (haram). Certain animals that are harmful to humans, such as a pig, dog, cat and predators, have also become forbidden to eat, that is, the meat of animals that are forbidden to be eaten according to Sharia is harmful to humans, whether we realize it or not.

The following are the principles on which the scientists of the Hanafi madhhab are based. These principles are set out in the classic books on the Hanafi fiqh (Al-Fataaw'ul-Hindiya, No. 5/289–291; Badais-Sanai, No. 5 / 35–39; Raddul-Mukhtar, No. 304–308).

1. Animals whose eating was clearly forbidden in the Qur'an and Sunnah are undoubtedly haram, for example, a pig, a donkey, etc.

2. Animals that are born and live in water are haram, the only exception is fish. All kinds of fish are halal, except for the fish that dies in the sea in a natural way without any external reason. But if the fish died due to some external cause, for example, from cold, heat, from stumbling on a stone or thrown by a wave on the beach, etc., then such a fish is halal.

Almighty Allah says (meaning): “Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maitah (the dead animals - cattle - beast not slaughtered), blood, the flesh of swine ...” (Surat al-Ma'ida, ayat 53).

In the above verse, the Almighty forbade the meat of carrion, not dividing animals living on land and at sea. Therefore, all marine animals also fall under this general ban. But the fish does not fall under this general rule, because the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) clearly indicated its permissibility.

Abdullah ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The two kinds of dead meat are fish and locusts, and the two kinds of blood are the liver and spleen”(Sunan Abu Daud, Musnad Ahmad, Sunan Ibn Maj).

Moreover, there is not a single mention in the collections of the Sunnah that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) or his companions at least once ate the meat of some sea creatures, except fish. If such meat were halal, from the Sunnah there would have been known at least a single instance of consuming the meat of marine animals for food, in order to show that this is permitted (Dars Tirmidhi, No. 1/280).

Regarding eating fish that naturally died in the sea without any influence of external causes (Samakat-tafi), Jabir ibn Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “What the sea throws up and is left by the tide you may eat, but what dies in the sea and floats you must not eat.”(Sunan Abu Daud, No. 3809; Sunan Ibn Maj).

Ali banned the sale of fish on the markets, which died by its own (which dies at sea and then floats to the surface) (Badi al-Sanai, No. 5/36; Al-Ihtiyar).

In the light of the above, it can be concluded that all marine animals, except fish, are forbidden to eat. The fish is allowed even without observing all the rules of slaughtering animals according to Sharia. But if a fish died a natural death without external influence and floated to the surface of the water (samakat-tafi), then such fish is forbidden (haram).

3. Among animals that live on land, those that have no blood are forbidden (haram) for human consumption. For example: a hornet, a fly, a spider, a beetle, a scorpion, an ant, etc. The Almighty Allah says (meaning): “... (the Prophet) who encourages the good, keeps from the disapproved, allows them to eat good (clean) food, suitable for human nature, and prohibits harmful (and unclean) for people "(Surah Al-Araf, ayat 157).

Living beings in which blood circulates through the unclosed circulatory system (spider, etc.) belong to the unclean, because eating them causes disgust in humans.

The exception is the locust, because the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) clearly indicated its permissibility in the aforementioned hadith, which is given in the collections of “Sunan” by Abu Daoud and “Musnad” by Imam Ahmad.

In addition, Ibn Abi Avf (may Allah be pleased with him), when asked if the locust could be eaten, replied: “We participated with the Prophet in six or seven Ghazawat, and we used to eat locusts with him.”(Sunan Abu Daud, No. 3806).

4. Amphibians and reptiles are also prohibited, for example: snake, lizard, chameleon, etc.

5. According to the fifth principle, all pest animals (khasharatul-ard) are forbidden (haram) for human consumption, for example, a mouse, a hedgehog, a jerboa, etc. The reason for the prohibition to eat their meat is that they are also considered unclean food.

6. All the animals living on land, in which blood circulates, that feed on grass and leaves and do not hunt other animals (that is, not predators living on the ground) are allowed (halal) for eating, such as a camel, a cow, a goat, buffalo, ram, etc. However, in the Hanafi madhhab there is a slight disagreement regarding the consumption of horse meat, but this will be discussed later. An exception to this category of animals is an ass - its meat is forbidden to be eaten.

Almighty Allah says (meaning): “And the grazing livestock He has created for you; in them is warmth and [numerous] benefits, and from them you eat” (Surah An-Nahl, ayat 5).

And also (meaning): “Allah is the One who has subjugated the cattle to you, so that you can ride on some and feed on others” (Surah Al-Mumin, ayat 79).

In the above verses, the Almighty Allah uses the word "al-an'am" (cattle), which, according to the unanimous opinion of all Arabic language experts, means herbivores.

Regarding the use of horse meat, Imam Abu Hanifa (may Allaah be merciful to him) expressed the opinion that this is deprecated (macruh tanzih) because the horse is a noble animal and is used during jihad. Imams Abu Yusuf and Muhammad (may Allah be merciful to them) spoke in favor of allowing horse meat to be eaten, and it is reported that Imam Abu Hanifa also expressed this opinion. Therefore, it is permitted to eat horse meat, but it is better to refrain from this.

Concerning the meat of a donkey and a mule, the Almighty says (meaning): “Allah has created for you horses, mules and donkeys, so that you can ride them and that they are an ornament for you that pleases you. Allah created other means of transportation that you do not know "(surah" An-Nahl ", ayat 8).

Thus, we see that all other herbivores are allowed in food, as Allah Almighty said about this (as we learned from the above verses). But about donkeys and mules, the Creator said that they are meant for riding and decoration. If the eating of these animals were permitted, the Most High would no doubt point to this.

Moreover, Abdullah bin Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) forbade eating donkey meat on the day of the Battle of Khaibar (Sahih al-Bukhari, No. 5202).

Abu Talaba (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) forbade the eating of donkey meat (Sahih al-Bukhari, No. 5205).

Regarding the mules, Khalid bin Walid (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) banned the meat of horses, mules and donkeys (Musnad Ahmad, No. 4/89; Sunan Abu Daud, No. 3790; Sunan Nasai and Sunan Ibn Majah).

7. All predatory animals living on land and animals that hunt with the help of claws are haram. For example: lion, cheetah, tiger, leopard, wolf, fox, dog, cat, etc.

8. Haram includes all birds of prey that hunt with claws. For example: a falcon, an eagle, a kite, a hawk, etc. The bat is also prohibited, although it refers to mammals. Proof for these two principles (7th and 8th) is the famous Hadith from Abdullah Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), in which the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) forbade the use of predator meat with tusks and birds with claws (Sahih Muslim, No. 1934). Therefore, all predatory animals and birds (animals that hunt others for their fangs, and birds that hunt with claws) are haram.

9. Birds that do not hunt other animals with their claws, mainly feeding on seeds and grain instead, are allowed for food, such as chicken, duck, pigeon, swallow, etc. Abu Musa al-Ashari (may be pleased with him Allah) said: “I saw the Messenger of Allah (r.a.a.) consuming (the meat of) chicken” (Sahih al-Bukhari, No. 5198).

10. If a halal animal eats exclusively unclean foods, as a result of which its meat and milk acquire an unpleasant odor, eat such milk and meat as food - macruh. But if, along with an unclean animal, it eats clean food or the use of an unclean does not affect its meat and milk, then it is absolutely permissible to eat meat and milk of such an animal (Raddul-Mukhtar, No. 6/340). The book "Al-Fatawa al-Hindiya" says: "To eat chicken will be censured (makrooh) only if most of what it eats is unclean, and unclean food affects chicken meat so that it acquires foul odor ”(Al-Fataawa ul-Hindiya, No. 5/289).

11. If one of the parents of an animal is allowed to be eaten by an animal and the other is forbidden, the decision regarding the meat of this animal depends on who its mother is. If the mother is a halal animal, her cub's meat is halal, as is the case with a hybrid animal whose mother is a mare or a cow. But if the mother is a forbidden animal for food, her cub's meat is haram, as in the case of a mule, whose mother is a donkey.

Above were given eleven general principles regarding the determination of permissibility / inhibition of eating meat according to the Hanafi madhhab of Islamic law. It should be noted that the term "halal" in this case implies only the permissibility of eating meat of certain animals for food. Regarding how animals should be slaughtered and how to hunt them, there are some rules for the study of which should refer to the books on fiqh. Failure to comply with these rules may turn the meat of an initially permitted animal into a forbidden one.

Based on the eleven principles outlined above, we will present lists of what is permitted (halal) and forbidden (haram) to eat animals according to the Hanafi madhhab (both lists are not exhaustive).

Opinions of four madhhabs about the permissibility and the prohibition of eating meat of certain animals



Animal name

Hukm madhhab

Hanafi

Hukm madhhab

Shafi'i

Hukm madhhab

Maliki

Hukm madhhab

Hanbali

Shark

haram

halal

halal

halal

Snipe

halal

halal

halal

halal

Squirrel

haram

haram

halal

haram

Wolf

haram

haram

makruh

haram

Sparrow

halal

halal

halal

halal

Crow

haram

haram

haram

haram

Lice

haram

haram

haram

haram

Gazelle

halal

halal

halal

halal

Cheetah

haram

haram

haram

haram

Dove

halal

halal

halal

halal

Turtle-dove

halal

halal

halal

halal

Hyena

haram

halal

halal

halal

Hedgehog

haram

halal

halal

haram

Stag-beetle

haram

haram

haram

haram

Stable fly

haram

haram

haram

haram

Giraffe

halal

haram

halal

haram

Snake

haram

haram

It is allowed to eat except for the head and the part of the tail

It is allowed to eat except for the head and the part of the tail

Crocodile

haram

haram

halal

haram

Grasshopper

halal

halal

halal

halal

Marten

haram

haram

haram

haram

Swallow

halal

haram

haram

haram

Lion

haram

haram

makruh

haram

Horse

makruh tanzihi

halal

haram

halal

Frog

haram

haram

halal

haram

Bear

haram

haram

haram

haram

Mole

haram

haram

mubah

haram

Mule

haram

haram

haram

haram

Ant

haram

haram

haram

haram

Fly

haram

haram

haram

haram

Mouse

haram

haram

haram

haram

Donkey

haram

haram

haram

haram

Peacock

haram

haram

haram

haram

Carrion

haram

haram

haram

haram

Spider

haram

haram

haram

haram

Parrot

halal

haram

halal

halal

Bee

haram

haram

haram

haram

Crayfish

haram

haram

halal

halal

Fish (died in water without visible causes and surfaced)

haram

halal

halal

halal

Pig

haram

haram

haram

haram

Dog

haram

haram

haram

haram

Sable

haram

halal

halal

haram

Starling

halal

halal

halal

halal

Elephant

haram

haram

haram

haram

Mediterranean turtle

haram

haram

haram

haram

Eel

halal

halal

halal

halal

Hoopoe

haram

halal

haram

haram

Snail

haram

haram

halal

haram

Gull

mubah

halal

halal

halal

Turtle

haram

haram

haram

haram

Lizard

haram

halal

halal

halal



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